The Wives of Wilford Woodruff
The following is the not the result of original research; I merely wanted to create a simple list of Wilford Woodruff’s marriages using solid secondary resources (mainly Thomas G. Alexander, Woodruff’s most recent biographer, and D. Michael Quinn, historian of the Mormon hierarchy), supplemented by Woodruff’s own diaries and Family Record when possible. (Woodruff included a Family Record in the beginning of his journals.) As is typical of projects like this, I found that the job was more challenging than I expected, so my research is ongoing. I would especially like to know more about Clarissa Hardy and Mary Caroline Barton. Any corrections or relevant additions will be welcome. Thanks to Mel Tungate for helpful comments.
I bold names of special importance. Children that did not survive infancy are not bolded. Nicknames or commonly used names are given in quotation marks. Variants are given in brackets. Married names are given in parentheses.
was born March 1, 1807 in
His parents were Aphek
Woodruff, born November 11, 1778 in
Bulah died in June 1808.
After Bulah’s death, Aphek married Azubah Hart, and they had six children, but four died before adulthood. The two who survived, half-siblings of Wilford Woodruff, are: Asahel, born in 1814, and Eunice, born in 1820.
Woodruff’s first wife was Phebe
Whittemore Carter; they were married on
April 13, 1837.
She and Wilford were both thirty at the time, which is later than is usual for
Mormons of that time period. Born in
Phebe offers a case history of a first wife, a role that had advantages and disadvantages. Alexander wrote that in the 1870’s, “[Wilford] and Phebe became less intimate. . . . Increasingly, she and Wilford lived parallel lives residing in the same house but moving on separate courses. Phebe had become a community leader in her own right. . . . She became a leader in promoting women’s political activity, writing on one occasion that ‘she would as soon think of neglecting her prayers as neglecting to go to the polls.’ . . .
“As Wilford and Phebe grew more independent, Wilford’s interest in providing for his younger wives and their children and in developing business operations with his older sons led him to engage less than previously in ventures involving Phebe . . . Phebe may have become more distant from her husband because of her swelling dislike of polygamy, and she may have harbored some resentment over Wilford’s increasing attention to his younger wives and their minor children. . . . She once publicly observed that she ‘thought it [plural marriage] the most heinous thing I ever heard of’ until she became convinced of its divinity . . . In private she may have found the institution an ‘unclean thing,’ yet she realized that in her position she could not oppose her husband and other church leaders on the issue.”
Although their relationship changed, Woodruff neither ignored Phebe nor left her entirely to her own devices. As his first wife, she still occupied the primary position in his families . . . She remained publicly his most visible wife. They went to the theater and traveled together on occasion . . .”
Phebe died on November 10, 1885, at the age of 68, while Wilford was on the underground. He was able to watch the cortege, but couldn’t attend the funeral.
2. Wilford Woodruff’s second wife was Mary Ann Jackson; they married on April 15 or August 2, 1846, at
Mary Ann had been born on February
18, 1818, in
On August 2, 1846, Woodruff wrote: “During the evening President Young And Dr Richards Called at my tent. President Young deliverd an interesting lecture upon the priesthood And the principal of sealing there being present: Phebe W. Woodruff / [Mary] Caroline Barton / Caroline [mistake for Sarah] Brown / Mary Jackson.” There is a picture of a large heart with four keys. This is a typical pre-1852 cryptic reference to plural marriages. On August 8, at a time of rebaptisms, Woodruff rebaptized the trio, and got the names right: “Caroline, Sarah, Mary.” He also has the names correct on August 26: “Caroline Barton and Sarah Brown.” He describes them there as “members of my family.”
Alexander writes, “While in
Mary Ann died on October 25, 1894 in
3. Wilford Woodruff’s third wife was Mary Carolyn [Caroline] Barton; who had been born on January 12, 1829 in Wilmington, New Castle, Delaware. They were married on August 2, 1846. She and Wilford Woodruff divorced four weeks later and she returned to her parents.
Alexander writes, “The two young wives [she and Sarah Brown, see below] began keeping company with three young men nearer their own ages, staying out with them until early in the morning for several days. . . . The thirty-nine-year-old Woodruff forebade his teenage wives from consorting with the men . . . they continued dating their friends, and Woodruff thought some sexual misconduct had taken place . . . As promised, he sent Carolyn Barton back to her parents and Sarah Brown to another famly, and Hosea Stout whipped the boys. Woodruff thought the girls deserved similar punishment, but expulsion sufficed . . . Brigham Young agreed to divorces between Woodruff and the two women.”
Two years later Mary married Erastus Curtis, with whom she would have eleven children. She died on August 10, 1910 in Barton, Custer, Idaho.
4. Wilford Woodruff’s fourth wife was Sarah Elinore [Elinor or Eleanor] Brown; they were married on
August 2, 1846. She was eighteen, Wilford was thirty-nine. They divorced four
weeks later and Sarah went to live with another family.
Sarah Brown was born on August 22, 1827, in Vinal Haven,
Wilford Woodruff apparently married her sister posthumously. He records in his diary: “Rebeca Brown born in vinal Haven Maine Oct 30, 1826 / Sealed to WW Died Aug 1839 Aged 13 year /June 15 1807/.”
Sarah later married Lisbon Lamb in
5. Wilford Woodruff’s fifth wife was Mary Giles Meeks Webster; they were married on March 28, 1852. She was forty-eight and a widow; Woodruff was forty-five. On March 28, 1852, Woodruff wrote, “28th I Preached at the 13th ward School House in the forenoon & wrote in the Afternoon [unt?]ill 4 ocok then Attended the prayer Circle with the presidency And Prayer Twelve. The president called upon me in the Evening with several others & spent A little time with us. Sister Mary Meek Giles took up her abode with us as a Boarder /And was sealed to W Woodruff for time & Eternity/.”
In Woodruff’s Family Record, we
read “Mary Giles Webster, Daughter of Samuel & Elizabeth Giles born in
Mary died about a half year after this marriage. On October 3, 1852, Wilford wrote, “Oct 3d Sunday Sister Mary Giles Meeks Webster died at 1 oclok P.M. this day. I sat by her at her last moments & closed her eyes.”
6. Wilford Woodruff’s sixth wife was Clarissa Hardy. So far I have found only secondary attestations for
According to Quinn, the marriage took place in 1852. If this is correct, she
was about eighteen and Woodruff was about forty-six. Again, according to
secondary sources, they were divorced in 1853. Familysearch.org, on Clarissa’s
personal entry, tells us that this person is Clarissa Henrietta Hardy, born on
November 30, 1834, in East Bradford,
On familysearch.org, Clarissa is listed as having three husbands: (1) Woodruff (no marriage date given); (2) Alonzo Havington Russell (marriage date December 11, 1853, 3 children); and (3) Thomas William Winter (marriage date February 11, 1867).
Clarissa died on September 3, 1903
7. Wilford Woodruff’s seventh wife was Emma Smoot Smith; they were married on March 13, 1853. Woodruff recorded in his diary, “Wilford Woodruff & (Emma Smith born March 1st 1838 At Diahman Davis County Missouri) was sealed for time & Eternity by President Brigham Young at 7 oclock P.M. March 13 1853.” Emma was fifteen; Wilford was forty-six. Alexander writes, “He probably refrained from sexual relations with Emma until she became older, since she did not bear her first child, Hyrum Smith Woodruff, until October 4, 1857, seven months after she turned nineteen.” In the Family Record, Woodruff wrote, “Emma Smith was Born at Diahman Davis County Missouri March 1st 1838 Emma Smith Daughter of Samuel & Mohecla [Martishia] Smith Married to Wilford Woodruff sen March 13 1853.” Genealogical records give the mother’s name as Martishia Smoot. She was sister of the famous Abraham Smoot.
The Family Record lists the following children for Emma: Hiram Smith (1857-1858), Emma Manella [Minilla] (1860-1905), Asahel Hart (1863-1939), Anna Thompson (1867-1867), Clara Martishia [Martisha] (Beebe) (1868-1927), Abram [Abraham] Owen [“Owen”] (1872-1904), Wineford [Winifred] Blanch (Daynes) (1876-1954), and Mary Alice (McEwan) (1879-1916). Abraham Owen was ordained an apostle by his father in 1897. Like his father, he was a polygamist; he married one plural wife in 1901.
After Phebe’s death in1885, Emma became Wilford’s public,
legal wife. She died in
8. Wilford Woodruff’s eighth wife was Sarah Brown; they were married on March 13, 1853. Sarah was nineteen; Wilford was forty-six. In his diary, Woodruff writes, “Wilford Woodruff and (Sarah Brown born in Hendersen County New York Jefferson County New York Jan 1st 1834) was sealed for time and Eternity By President Brigham Young at 7 oclock PM March 13, 1853.” A biography gives her parents as Harry Brown and Rhoda North. There is a lovely picture of Wilford, Sarah and three children in Nelson Wadsworth’s Set in Stone Fixed in Glass.
Wilford lists eight children for Sarah: David Patten (1854-1937), Brigham Young (1857-1877), Phebe Arobella [Arabella] (Moses) (1859-1939), Sylva Malvina [Melvina] (Thompson) (1862-1940), Newton (1863-1960), Mary (1867-1913), Charles Henry (1870-1871), and Edward Randolph (1873-1873).
Sarah died on May 9, 1909 in
9. Wilford Woodruff’s ninth wife was Sarah Delight “Delight” Stocking; they were married on July 31,
1857. Delight was nineteen, Woodruff was fifty. He wrote, “July 31…A few days
since I Called upon Presidet Young & had some Conversation with him. I then
went to the Endowment House & worked till 2 oclok. <President Young
sealed Sarah Delight Stocking to me. She was born in
In the Family Record, Woodruff lists seven children for Delight: Marion (1861-1946), Emeline (Burrows) (1863-1915), Ensign (1865-1955), Jeremiah (1868-1869), Rosana (1871-1872), John L. [Jay] (1873-1964), and Julia Delight (Park) (1878-1954).
Delight died on May 28, 1906 in Big Cottonwood,
10. Wilford Woodruff’s tenth wife was Eudora Lovina [Lovinia, Lavina] (“Dora Lou”) Young (Dunford); they were married on March 10, 1877. Eudora was twenty-five, Woodruff was seventy. She was a daughter of Brigham Young and Lucy Bigelow, and thus was the sister of Susa Young Gates. Her birthdate was May 12, 1852. She had previously married Moreland Dunford, with whom she had two children, but this marriage had ended in divorce.
The marriage of Woodruff and Eudora was a pure dynastic
marriage: “Obviously enthused by the festivities and convinced of the divinity
of Woodruff’s revelation, Young offered the apostle his twenty-five-year-old
recently-divorced daughter Eudora Lovina as an additional wife,” writes
On March 10, 1877, Woodruff wrote, “10 We gave Endowments to 106. 36 Elders
ordained. W Woodruff sealed 7, E Snow 27. Presidet Young was with us to day in
Eudora had one son with Wilford Woodruff, who died soon
after birth; then there was a divorce. She reportedly gave Woodruff’s name to
federal marshals in 1879.
She later married non-Mormon judge Albert Hagan, with whom she had four
children. She died in
There is one more possible plural wife of Wilford
Many of the standard patterns of Mormon polygamy are present in Woodruff’s marriages. We find the phenomenon of favored wives and less-favored wives. We have dynastic marriages (where a young woman is used to bond two older elite men), and problems when a middle-aged or older man marries a teenager or young woman, often for religious or dynastic reasons. In the case of Mary Meeks Webster, we also have Woodruff marrying an older widow, probably to care for her. In the cases of Mary Caroline Barton and Sarah Elinor Brown, it is possible that these teenagers did not fully understand that “celestial marriage” was applicable in this life.
Alexander summarizes Woodruff’s family life: “He did not treat his wives and children equally. He clearly preferred Phebe and her children, and after her death Emma and hers. He was much less involved with Sarah and least with Delight and her children. At least four of his marriages failed for reasons not entirely clear, but which included incompatibility in Mary Ann’s case . . . perhaps his neglect in Eudora’s case.”
Yet some of Woodruff’s marriages were fully successful. On his ninety-first birthday, he himself summarized his families with pride:
March 1, 1898 This is the Birth Day of myself & wife Emma. I have lived 91 yeres today and My wife Emma 60 Years. I have had to acknowledg the hand of God in the preservation of our lives untill the present time. I did not deem it wisdom to have a Birth Day Party to day. Last year I met many thousands in the Tabernacle and Emma and myself shook hands with some 7,000 of the Assembly and I did not feel like going through that operation this season.
Emma has lived with me as my wife 45 years. She has born me 3 sons and 5 daughters. One son died in childhood. 2 sons grew to Manhood and both are Noble Men.
ordaind into the Quorum of Seventies, has presided over the
Owen has filled a
Emma lost one Daughter in Childhood but raised four to Motherhood All Noble women.
Carter Woodruff My first wife bore me Nine Children 4 sons & 5 daughters. 3
sons died in Early Childhood. Wilford is Still living 50 years of Age. Spent
wife Sarah Brown Woodruff bore me 4 sons. 2 are still living. Brigham Y drowned
at 20 years of age.
Phoebe Whittemore Carter Woodruff
by Ellice W. Smith
from Carter, ed., Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 10, pp. 231-32
Phoebe Whittemore Carter was born March 8, 1807, in
After she arrived in Kirtland Phoebe met the Prophet
Joseph Smith and became a close friend of his family. Within a year she married
Wilford Woodruff. Joseph Smith had promised to perform the ceremony, but was
unable to do so. Phoebe's life from then on proved to be a very eventful one.
She accompanied her husband on two missions, the Fox Islands off the State of
Wilford, Jr., Phoebe Amelia and Susan Cornelia were born
to the Woodruff's in
Soon after their arrival, Wilford moved his family from
the Old Fort into a home near the
November 10, 1885, Phoebe Woodruff died at the age of seventy-eight. Her husband was greatly affected by her death and painfully humiliated because he was only able to watch her funeral procession as it passed the historian's office where he was in hiding from the authorities of the law because of polygamy, a doctrine she had struggled so hard to embrace. A historian of note who resided with the Woodruff family for some time, said:
Phoebe Carter Woodruff is one of the noblest examples of
her sex, truly a mother in
Mary Ann Jackson Woodruff
by Fanny Ensign Gunn
from Carter, ed., Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 10, pp. 233-34
Mary Ann Jackson Woodruff was born in
Mary Ann attended the dedication of the
Owing to circumstances with which they were surrounded, the brethren were some of them reluctant to fill the ranks and leave as they did some young brides, and others, wives with large families of children, and others, dear old widowed mothers with none to care for them but their sons; but our beloved Brigham was equal to the task. He told the Saints that a battalion must be raised if it took the authorities and the women to fill it up. On July 16, 1846, I stood and watched the battalion break camp for their long western march, composed of the beardless youth and the white-haired veteran.
The following was taken from James J. Woodruff's journal:
On the 2nd day of August, 1846, President Brigham Young and Willard Richards called at the tent of Apostle Wilford Woodruff and united in the bonds of marriage by the power of the Holy Priesthood Wilford Woodruff and Mary Ann Jackson. President Brigham Young performed the sacred ordinance and President Richards was the witness. In Wilford Woodruff's journal for this day, he has drawn a large heart with four keys and the following words are written, "August 2, President Brigham Young called at my tent and delivered an interesting lecture upon the priesthood and the principles of sealing. Present was Phoebe W. Woodruff, Mary Jackson, Caroline Barton and Sarah Brown.
Mary Ann Jackson Woodruff remained in Winter Quarters after the first company of pioneers left. Here her first child was born. "On May 25, 1847, my baby was born, a son. We called him James Jackson Woodruff. On the 13th of June I began the journey to follow the pioneers when he was nineteen days old. I started with dear old father, Aphek Woodruff, blessed be his name, for in the hands of the Lord, he was the means of saving my life."
Quoting from her son, James Jackson's record, we read: “My heroic mother started with my dear grandfather Aphek, with two wagons, two horses, an ox and one cow. One wagon was loaded with flour milling machinery and the other for the family and provisions. The company arrived in the Valley in September 1847.”
Emma Smith Woodruff
by Winnifred Blanche Woodruff Daynes from
from Carter, ed., Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 10, p. 234-35
Emma Smith Woodruff was born March 1st, 1838, in
In 1850 Emma started west with her parents. Her father had
worked hard in preparation for the journey into a wilderness, and yet he
undertook it with the same hope and manly courage that was typical of most of
the early pioneers. When the family reached Salt Creek, the father was stricken
with cholera and after only two hours of suffering, died. Three days later, the
mother gave birth to a little girl. Emma, then only twelve years of age,
assumed the responsibility of looking after the bereaved family. After many
trials the company reached the Valley of the
In the year 1853, Emma, fifteen years of age, became the
third wife of Wilford Woodruff, devoting her full time and energy to the
welfare of her husband and his family. Eight children were born to Emma
Woodruff, the first when she was twenty years of age. Emma was very active and
useful in the organizations of the Church. She was a charter member of the
Retrenchment Society, and was chosen to act on the first Salt Lake Stake board
of Relief Society. She became president of the Farmers Ward Relief Society,
first stake Relief Society president of Granite Stake and a member of the
general board of Relief Society when it was incorporated in October 1892. Here
she labored for many years, traveling and ministering in her calling among the
sisters of that organization. When the
Sarah Brown Woodruff
by Sylvia Moses Handley
from Carter, ed., Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 10, p.235-36
Sarah Brown Woodruff, third child of Harry and Rhoda North
Brown, was born January 1, 1834, at
In 1852 the Brown family boarded the river steamer,
Saluda, bound for
Sarah was married to Apostle Wilford Woodruff March 13,
1853. Their oldest son, David Patton, was born on April 4, 1854. The next year
she taught school in
On May 30th, 1871, Sarah's family moved to
Mary died in 1891 and Grandmother Sarah cared for the
children for some time. Sarah Brown Woodruff was the mother of eight children,
and at the time of her death, May 9, 1909, was grandmother to thirty-four
children, and great-grandmother to twenty-four. She died in
Sarah Delight Stocking Woodruff
by Julia Woodruff Parks
from Carter, ed., Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 10, pp. 236-38
Sarah Delight Stocking Woodruff was born July 26, 1838 in
Canton, Hartford County, Conn., the daughter of John J. Stocking and Catherine
Emeline Ensign, converts to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in
1843. The family moved to Nauvoo in September 1844 where Sarah's father
followed his trade as tailor for a short time, but was compelled to take any
work available to obtain supplies for their intended journey with the Saints.
They left Nauvoo and traveled to
During the journey, Sarah's mother became ill with cholera and died. Wrapped in a sheet and covered with a thick bark from a nearby tree, her body was placed in the earth and covered with dirt and rock. The cholera epidemic was increasing and the sick were not recovering. Sarah was very ill and pleaded with her father to baptize her in the river, explaining that she knew if he would do so she would be made well, but if he did not, she would die. Her father decided to do as she asked, although he was fearful her death might be hastened as a result of the baptism. He carried the child in a chair to the river bank. News spread through the camp, and many of the company gathered to witness the ceremony. Some remonstrated with him, but he explained that Sarah's faith was strong and he must comply with her wishes. She was taken in his arms into the water where he baptized her three times. After the third immersion she was healed and walked from the water unaided.
After many trials, one of which was the attempted
abduction of Sarah, the family arrived in the Valley of the
As the Woodruff family grew, Sarah moved to a ten-acre
farm on Third East near Tenth South. Here her family earned their living. She
became the mother of seven children, four sons and three daughters. One child
died in infancy, and one was an Indian boy she raised who was given to her
husband by a tribe. Sarah found time for Church duties, particularly Relief
Society and M.I.A. When her youngest daughter married and left home, Sarah
moved to Big Cottonwood where she made her home with her unmarried son, John J.
She was characterized as a woman of sweet disposition, modest and unassuming.
After being an invalid for more than two years, she died May 28, 1906, at Big
Cottonwood, and was buried in the
 For Woodruff’s diaries, see Scott Kenney, Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 1833-1898, Typescript, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983-1985). This edition of Woodruff’s journals is the single basic primary source for Woodruff’s life. Thomas G. Alexander’s Things in Heaven and Earth: The Life and Times of Wilford Woodruff, a Mormon Prophet (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991) is a splendid, up-to-date biography of Woodruff, the basic secondary source for Woodruff’s life. It pays special attention to Woodruff’s family life, which was often ignored in old-fashioned, conservative biographies. However, Alexander did not supply a formal list of Woodruff’s wives. Incidently, Signature Books deserves great credit for having published the two basic books on Wilford Woodruff. They are both available on Signature’s indispensable New Mormon Studies CD-ROM. Other books of interest for Woodruff’s life and times, especially his later life, are Leo Lyman, Political Deliverance: The Mormon Quest for Utah Statehood (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986); Carmon Hardy, Solemn Covenant: The Mormon Polygamous Passage (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992); Thomas G. Alexander, Mormonism in Transition: A History of the Latter-day Saints, 1890-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986); and D. Michael Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1994), 605-7 (which has one of the authoritative listings of Woodruff’s wives, though unfortunately this list has no footnotes).
 See Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 6; Family Record, in Kenney 1:203.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 52. In the Family Record, Wilford writes, “Phebe W. Carter [born] March 8 1807 [married] April 13, 1837 [died] /November 10/85.” Kenney 1:203.
 Kenney 1:203-4.
 Kenney 5:323 (Apr. 4, 1859) (cf. 5:22, 5:278).
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 223-24.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 241.
 Kenney 2:588
 Kenney 2:65.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 129. Alexander’s footnotes have further documentation on the date of Mary Ann’s marriage to Wilford Woodruff.
 For other references to Mary Ann in Woodruff’s journals, see Kenney 3:42, 3:65-66, 6:113, 6:582, 7:294, 8:411, 8:479-84, 8:486, 8:488, 8:491, 8:494, 8:496-97, 8:499, 8:507, 8:509, 8:513-17, 8:520, 8:523-25, 8:528-29, 8:531. For a short biography, with a picture, Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 10, p.233. (This article has been added as an appendix to this paper.)
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 135. See above on Mary Ann Jackson for her marriage date.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 135. For further on this story, see Woodruff journal, August 2, 26, 29, Sept. 6, 1846 (Kenney 3:71-72, 75); Hosea Stout journal, in Juanita Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, the Diary of Hosea Stout, 1844-1861, 2 vols. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1964) 1:190-192.
Frank Esshom, Pioneers and Prominent Men
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 135. See above on Mary Ann Jackson for her marriage date.
 Kenney 1:209.
 Kenney 4:103.
 Kenney 1:209. In an entry on the same page, Woodruff lists Mary, but has a less precise birthdate.
 Kenney 4:149.
 Quinn, Mormon Hierarchy: Origins, 605; Richard Van Wagoner and Steven C. Walker, A Book of Mormons (SLC: Signature Books, 1982), 396; the LDS church’s genealogical website, familysearch.org, on Clarissa’s personal entry; Kenney 1:xvii.
 Kenney 2:498, 4:398, 4:461, 4:472-73, 4:481, 4:495, 4:516, 5:50, 5:273, 6:115, 6:319, 6:407, 6:533, 7:414-16, 8:267-68.
 Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: A. Jenson History Company, 1901-1936) 1:236-37.
 D. Michael Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power (Salt Lake City : Signature Books, 1997), 659-60.
 Kenney 4:211.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 168.
 Kenney 1:.206.
 Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions, 717-18.
 See Winnifred Blanche Woodruff Daynes, “Emma Smith Woodruff ,” in Kate Carter, ed., Our Pioneer Heritage, 20 vols. (Salt Lake City, Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1958-) 10:234. (This article has been added as an appendix to this paper.)
Kenney 4: 211. In the Family Record, we read, “Sarah Brown was Born Jefferson
 Sylvia Moses Handley, “Sarah Brown Woodruff,” in Carter, Our Pioneer Heritage, 10:235-36. (This article has been added as an appendix to this paper.)
 Nelson Wadsworth, Set in Stone Fixed in Glass, p. 62.
Kenney 5:70. In the Family Record, we read, “Sarah Delight Stockings was sealed
to W Woodruff at the Alter in the Endowmt House July 31, 1857 By Presidet
Young.” Kenney 1:209. And also, “Sarah Delight Stockings Daughtar of John &
[ ] Stockings was married to
Wilford Woodruff sen July 31, 1857 /She was born in Canton Hartford Co
 Kenney 1:208.
 See Kenney 7:330, 7:338 (marriage), 7:339, 7:340, 7:341, 7:345, 7:347, 7:363.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 230.
 Kenney 7:338.
 On March 9, 1879, L. John Nuttall wrote in his diary, “Bro. Woodruff was here to avoid the arrest of U.S. Marshals who were on this track to arrest him for practicing Polygamy. His late wife, Endora [sic] L. Young. having reported him to the U.S. officers, although she has been divorced.” Available on New Mormon Studies CD-ROM.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 326-29; Hardy, Solemn Covenant, 227-32.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 329.
 Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth, 332.
 Kenney 9:534-36.